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Bladder Cancer

Reference: Sur Talk 264, OHCM 502, Lec Not Onc 110

Epidemiology

>40y, ♂>♀

Pathology

Transitional cell carcinoma.
Site: Bladder (50%) > ureter > renal pelvis.

Risk Factors.

Smoking, drugs (cyclophosphamide), industrial carcinogens (azo dyes), schistosomiasis

Clinical

Painless haematuria, frequency, urgency, dysuria, urinary tract obstruction.

Spread

Investigations

Management

Early: Diathermy via cystoscope
Early-ish: Radical cystectomy + chemotherapy. Radiotherapy gives worse results but preserves bladder. Neobladder formation if -ectomy.
Palliative : chemotherapy/radiotherapy
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