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Clinical Examination
Notes
CVS Exam
CVS Findings
Resp Exam
Resp Findings
Abdo Exam
Abdo Findings
Cranial Nerves
Cranial Nerve Findings
Neuro limbs
Neuro limb findings
Hip
Knee
Shoulder
GALS
Neck and Thyroid
Hands
Breast
Arterial system legs
Varicose veins
Lump
Groin lumps/Hernias
Ear
Eye
Paediatrics
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Neuro Limb Findings

Upper vs Lower motor neuron lesion

UMN LMN
Weak Y Y
Tone Spastic Normal
Clonus Y N
Tendon jerks
Plantar Extensor Flexor
Wasting N Y
Fasciculation N Y

Dermatomes

Dermatomes
Dermatomes of the body. A public domain image by Ralf Stephan .

Syndromes

Cerebral hemisphere syndrome
Causes : stroke, trauma, tumour. Signs : dysphasia (dom hemisphere), contral sensory inattention, contral weakness (spasticity, ↑tendon reflexes), contral homonymous hemianopia
Spinal cord syndrome
Causes : MS, cervical spondylotic myelopathy, trauma. Signs : Weakness, spastic tone both legs, flexor spasms in legs, ↑tendon jerks in legs, extensor plantar, abdo reflexes absent, pinprick sensation loss, JPS and VS ↓ in both toes
Peripheral neuropathy
Causes : DM, alcohol, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Signs : Distal muscle wasting (demyelinating polyneuropathies), loss of tendon jerks, impaired JPS and VS in feet, 'Glove and stocking' pinprick sensation loss. Symmetrical signs.
Cerebellar syndrome
Causes : MS, hereditary degenerative disorders. Signs : DANISH
Parkinsons
Symptoms : slowness (difficulty w buttons, difficulty turning in bed, small handwriting, difficulty washing hair, drooling), rigidity (pain/stiff limbs), shaking (intermittent, asymmetrical in hands). Signs : Tremor (at rest, asymmetrical), rigidity (cogwheel on wrist flexion/extension), akinensia (attempted rapid finder movements), posture (stooped), gait (shuffling, ↓arm swinging), mask face. Note : no weakness, no reflex Δs, patient may be dyskinetic due t L-dopa
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