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Clubbing
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Pleural Effusion

Incidental findings Clubbing, radiation burns, aspiration marks, lymphadenopathy
+ve signs Stony dull percussion note, decreased breath sounds, decreased vocal resonance
Differential diagnosis Pleural effusion cause depends upon transudate or exudate
Function ?respiratory compromise
Tests CXR, ultrasound
Pleural tap - protein, albumin, LDH, glucose, cytology, microbiology, acid fast bacilli
Pleural biopsy, CT chest

Causes

Transudate
Cardiac failure
Nephrotic syndrome
Cirrhosis
Exudate
Neoplastic: Ca bronchus / met / mesothelioma
Infectious: Pneumonia, TB
Connective tissue: rheumatiod arthritis, SLE

Notes

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